Hagia Sophia Mosaics

Step into the hypnotic world of Hagia Sophia and see its mesmerizing mosaics. 

They will transport you to a bygone era, where the Byzantine world comes to life through vibrant colors and meticulous craftsmanship. 

These intricate artworks offer a glimpse into the rich history and cultural heritage of the Byzantine Empire.

Book your tickets to witness its mosaics’ enduring beauty, which continues to attract and inspire visitors worldwide.


The mosaics in Hagia Sophia bear witness to a lost civilization.

The controversial mosaics inside the church stirred up discussions for 900 years as a place of worship. 

The Ottomans later transformed it into a mosque for 500 years.

The building became a museum during the early Republican period of the 1930s. 

The Byzantine emperors built the mosaics inside Hagia Sophia between the 9th and 13th centuries. 

Yet, even though Hagia Sophia dates back to 537, the earliest mosaic dates back to the 9th century. 

The Byzantine Iconoclasm, which occurred between 726 and 847, was a conflict between Iconoclasts and Iconophiles that destroyed all mosaics within the Empire’s borders.

The Empire faced a devastating time when Emperor Leo III removed the image of Jesus from the Chalke Gate of the Great Palace, initiating dissent.

Yet, despite the destruction of beautiful works of art, the empire endured and thrived, leaving behind a rich legacy of culture and history.

Hagia Sophia Imperial Gate mosaic

The mosaic of the imperial gate is on the tympanum above the imperial door leading to the narthex.

During the 9th or 10th century, artisans crafted the Hagia Sophia’s mosaics, depicting Emperor Leo VI engaging in proskynesis towards Christ, who sits on a magnificent throne. 

Christ blesses the emperor with his right hand and holds a book inscribed, “Peace be with you. I am the light of the world.” 

The roundels surrounding Christ showcase other figures, showcasing the Byzantine era’s artistic skill and religious devotion within the Hagia Sophia.

Mosaic of Emperors Justinian and Constantine

The Constantine and Emperor Justinian mosaic is a historical artifact that welcomes visitors to Hagia Sophia. 

It depicts the two famous emperors presenting their masterpieces to the Virgin and Child and the holy family. 

Emperor Constantine liberated Christianity and made Constantinople the new capital of the empire. 

Emperor Justinian conquered Italy and built the Hagia Sophia and Basilica of San Vitale. 

The mosaic dates back to the 10th century and is in excellent condition, a testament to their lasting legacy.

Deesis Mosaic Hagia Sophia

Visitors to Hagia Sophia can find the Deesis Mosaic of Christ in the south gallery on the upper floor. 

This masterpiece of Byzantine art dates back to the 13th century and depicts Judgment Day, a famous scene in religious art of the time. 

At the center of the mosaic is Christ Pantocrator, while the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist are on the left and right, respectively. 

In the scene, Mary and John implore Jesus to have mercy on people during the Day of Judgment. 

The Hagia Sophia Deesis Mosaic stands out due to the vividness of its colors and the emotive facial expressions of the characters, making it a true renaissance of Byzantine mosaic art.

Emperor Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Mosaic

The stunning Emperor mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe is in the south gallery of Hagia Sophia. 

This remarkable piece of art depicts the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, the third husband of Empress Zoe.

It’s truly a testament to the rich culture and history of the Byzantine Empire. 

After Romanus III and her second husband died, Zoe married Constantine Monomachus, who brought his mistress Maria Skleraina to the palace, causing a public uproar. 

The inscriptions on the mosaic highlight Zoe’s purity and the family’s donations to the church. Both Constantine and Zoe present to Jesus what they have done in the name of Christianity. 

The mosaic is a testament to the colorful history of the Byzantine Empire and the artistry of its time. 

Mosaic of Emperor Leo VI

Mosaic of Emperor Leo VI
Image: Guidigo.com

The Mosaic Of Emperor Leo VI, the ruler of the Byzantine Empire between 886 and 912, stands above the imperial gate in Hagia Sophia. 

It depicts Jesus’ mosaic and the emperor praying to him, Mary’s portrait is in the left circle, and the archangel Gabriel is in the right circle.

Leo VI’s marriages caused a scandal in Byzantium, as they were against tradition. 

Some church leaders condemned Leo and refused to recognize his fourth marriage. Basil, I asked Leo VI to marry for the first time. 

Unhappy in his marriage to Theophano Martinakia, the emperor married again after she died in 897. 

His second wife, Zoe, died in 899, and his third wife, Eudokia, died in 901, leaving Leo without an heir. 

Leo struggled to have his last marriage recognized by the church, but both sides agreed. 

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (meaning born in purple) was born, and he later became the emperor.

Mosaic of Virgin and Child

Hagia Sophia apse mosaic houses the Virgin and Child Mosaic, the oldest mosaic dating back to the 860s. 

One’s attention will first be drawn to the giant dome and this magnificent mosaic when passing through the imperial gate to the nave. 

The Virgin Mary mosaic in Hagia Sophia depicts her wearing a royal blue dress while baby Jesus is in a gold dress.

Skilled artisans created a large and detailed work of art, using all the art techniques to make the Byzantine mosaics visible from all over the church. 

The mother and child sit on a jeweled throne, and their image is a testament to the enduring legacy of the Byzantine Empire’s culture and history. 

When Iconoclasts ruled the Byzantine Empire, all mosaics in Hagia Sophia were destroyed and replaced by various religious symbols. 

The opening of this mosaic was of great significance to Iconophiles at the time.

How much more stunning and enchanting will Hagia Sophia be when witnessed in person, surpassing the mesmerizing beauty captured in mere photographs?

Book your tickets and let your eyes capture the true essence of its mesmerizing charm. 

Don’t forget to check the opening hours and know the best time to visit to beat the crowd. 


What are the interior mosaics in Hagia Sophia?

The interior mosaics in Hagia Sophia are intricate artworks made of colorful tiles that adorn the walls and ceilings of the building’s interior.

How has the Hagia Sophia Jesus mosaic survived throughout history?

Despite various changes in the status and function of Hagia Sophia over the centuries, the Jesus mosaic has managed to survive. 

It has undergone restoration and conservation efforts to preserve its beauty and historical significance for future generations.

In which century were the Hagia Sophia mosaics covered? 

Hagia Sophia mosaics were covered in the 16th century when the building underwent conversion into a mosque. 

This transformation involved plastering or whitewashing the mosaics to conform to Islamic artistic traditions.

What is the Christ mosaic in Hagia Sophia?

The Christ mosaic in Hagia Sophia is an important artwork in the central dome of the building. 

It depicts Jesus Christ with a halo, often portrayed as the Pantocrator (Ruler of All), blessing the viewers and symbolizing his divine authority.

What is the apse mosaic in Hagia Sophia?

The Hagia Sophia apse mosaic is a famous artwork in the semi-circular apse at the eastern end of the building. 

It typically depicts religious figures, such as the Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ, or saints, and serves as a focal point of worship and reverence.

When were the Hagia Sophia mosaics uncovered?

The mosaics in Hagia Sophia were uncovered during the restoration and conservation efforts in the mid-20th century. 

These efforts aimed to reveal and preserve the original Byzantine mosaics that had been covered or damaged over time.

What does the Jesus mosaic in Hagia Sophia depict?

The Jesus mosaic in Hagia Sophia portrays Jesus Christ, often referred to as the Pantocrator, seated on a throne with a halo. 

He is typically depicted as the divine ruler and teacher, conveying a sense of authority, wisdom, and compassion.

How old is the Christ mosaic in the Hagia Sophia?

The original Christ mosaic in the Hagia Sophia dates back to the 6th century when the church was first built. 

However, the mosaic has undergone several restorations and renovations over the years.

Featured Image: Commons.wikimedia.org

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